The Economics of Recycling: Reports from States and Others

In order to educate ASTSWMO members and others about the economic benefits of recycling, the Sustainable Materials Management Task Force assembled this list of recent reports on the economic benefits of recycling. The time span of reports included is from 2007 to 2017. The compilation is intended to be dynamic. The list will be reviewed on a periodic basis and updated with additional resources as identified.

Waste Generation and Disposal: Awareness, Management, and Disposal Guidance for Solid Waste Containing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM)

Radioactive material is found naturally in water, soils and rock. When this type of radioactive material is found in its original location and in its natural concentration distributions (including ore bodies) it is referred to as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). Many industrial processes use or come in contact with natural raw materials that contain NORM such as ore, water, soil, rock, oil and natural gas. When industrial processes separate or concentrate the NORM found in these raw materials and expel this radioactive material in their waste streams, the resulting concentrated NORM is referred to as Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM). The intent of this guidance document is to increase awareness regarding TENORM waste generation, as well as the regulatory and radiological complexities surrounding appropriate and protective TENORM waste management methods.

This document was originally posted December 18, 2017 but has since been updated as of February 15, 2018.

Beneficial Use of Drill Cuttings, Produced Water and Fluids in the U.S.

The Beneficial Use Task Force developed this report as a supplement to their March 2015 Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Waste Management Survey Report. In the 2015 Survey Report, the Task Force recommended further exploration of how exploration and production (E&P) waste streams are currently beneficially used in various States, and whether information on current uses may support increased beneficial use of particular E&P wastes, or may point to any limitations for beneficial use. This Supplemental Report summarizes the Task Force’s efforts to implement this recommendation, focusing on the beneficial use of three waste streams identified in the 2015 report as “high-volume” waste streams: Drill Cuttings, Produced Water and Water-Based Drilling Fluid/Mud. The information in the Supplemental Report was gathered between February and June 2016.

Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) Management Position Paper

Due to the fast-paced changes in technology and consumer interest in buying new electronic products, many States are seeing an increase in the amount of older electronic items being discarded. Monitors and televisions with cathode ray tube (CRT) technology are a growing concern for the States. CRT units can contain a variety of toxic metals, such as barium, lead, and cadmium. Therefore, improper or uncontrolled disposal of these devices can have an adverse impact to the environment.

Comments on the Proposed Revision to the RD&D Permits Rule for MSW Landfills

ASTSWMO appreciates the opportunity to provide comments on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed rule, Revision to the Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) Permits Rule for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills, published in the Federal Register on November 13, 2015 (80 FR 70180). These comments have not been reviewed or adopted by the ASTSWMO Board of Directors. In addition, individual State or Territorial solid waste programs may also provide comments based on their own perspectives and experiences.

Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Waste Management Survey Report

The report provides the findings of a survey conducted by the ASTSWMO Beneficial Use Task Force regarding management of exploration and production wastes (E&P wastes) from development of oil and gas resources in the United States. Forty States responded to the survey, the scope of which included the following: State regulatory schemes and agencies involved; State definitions of E&P waste; relative quantities of various wastes generated; management of disposal methods and limitations on disposal; management of radiological constituents and management of beneficial use.

State Regulations and Policies for Control of Naturally-Occurring and Accelerator Produced Radioactive Materials (NARM) and Technologically Enhanced Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM)

Between 2011 and 2012, the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials’ (ASTSWMO’s) Radiation Focus Group developed three reference documents on naturally-occurring, radioactive materials (NORM). The first, Incidental TENORM: A Guidance for State Solid Waste Managers (April 2011), provides information to inform solid waste managers about technologicallyenhanced, naturally-occurring, radioactive materials (TENORM), including an introduction to these materials, toxicity, waste generation, and disposal. This guidance document was followed up by the release of two fact sheets: TENORM Associated with Drinking Water Treatment (May 2011) and TENORM Associated with Shale Gas Operations (July 2012).

Product Stewardship Program Evaluation Tool

This tool was developed as a follow-up piece to the ASTSWMO Product Stewardship Framework Policy document, which is described in a subsequent section. As noted in the policy document, under a framework approach, States can define the product stewardship program structure, set criteria for selecting products and then add products to the stewardship program either by regulation or legislative authorization. Therefore, the State programs that are the focus of this guidance are those that have been created by regulation and/or legislation, and as such include data requirements. Voluntary State product stewardship programs are outside of the scope of the tool, though those programs may be able to use some of the concepts.

ASTSWMO Subtitle D Post-Closure Position Paper

Regulations promulgated approximately twenty years ago by individual States under the authority of Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) include provisions regarding the post-closure care of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The Subtitle D regulations establish a 30-year post-closure care period as the default requirement (See 40 CFR § 258.61).

RCRA and the State regulations include provisions allowing the 30-year period to be extended or shortened. The 30-year period may be extended if the Director of an approved State program “determines that the lengthened period is necessary to protect human health and the environment.” The 30-year period may be shortened by the State Director if the “owner or operator demonstrates that the reduced period is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.”